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20. Fiber-type Cannabis hemp is cultivated quite differently from drug-type Cannabis marijuana. Moreover, hemp is harvested at a different time than marijuana. Finally, cross-pollination between hemp and marijuana plants would significantly reduce the potency of the marijuana plants; i.e., hybridization would result in lower THC marijuana plants not in higher THC hemp plants.

52. The basic reasons for use of hemp oil in foods are that hemp oil has a better profile of key nutrients, such as essential fatty acids and gamma-linolenic acid, than other oils, and a similar profile of other nutrients, such as sterols and tocopherols. Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are present in hemp oil in the ratio of 3:1, which is the optimal ratio for health benefits. Dr. Udo Erasmus, an internationally recognized nutritional authority on the subject of oils and fats, states: “Hemp seed oil may be nature’s most perfectly balanced oil. It contains an ideal 3:1 ratio of omega-6s [linoleic acid] to omega-3s [alpha-linolenic acid] for long-term use, and provides the omega-6 derivative gamma-linolenic acid (GLA).” Udo Erasmus, Fats That Heal, Fats That Kill 127 (1999).

24. Where low-THC Cannabis hemp is cultivated, the preponderance by many orders of magnitude of the pollen in the surrounding 12 kilometers would come from the hemp. Marijuana growers typically remove the males, so the marijuana would not pollinate anything. But even if the males were not removed, the dilution of marijuana pollen by hemp pollen would be like a drop of water in the ocean. In subsequent generations one would have to assume that the seed planted was born on female plants which would be the marijuana plants but that is not the case since the hemp growers replant hemp seed and seed from the marijuana has typically gone with the marijuana to its end user.

(f) law enforcement agents and farmers can learn to readily distinguish between the different varieties of Cannabis sativa , and

35. Industrial hemp was a staple agricultural commodity throughout the United States in the 19th Century. It was grown by settlers on the Great Plains including Nebraska, Minnesota, Illinois and Colorado during the 1860s.

The 2018 Farm Bill gives states the opportunity to prop up industrial hemp programs—legalizing the plant. But in South Dakota, Republican Governor Kristi Noem vetoed a bill passed by the state legislature to do just that.

“It’s going to be a good field,” White Plume says. “It looks beautiful and healthy. The ground is black and rich.”

Earlier this year, White Plume partnered with a Boulder, Colorado based company called Evo Hemp, known for it’s edible hemp bars and cooking oil.

White Plume says the soil in this area has given him successful hemp yields in the past. But it also shows the history of his foray into hemp farming. Around this same field, wild hemp has sprouted, a product of a federal crop seizure nearly 20 years ago. Days from harvesting his crop, drug agents came and took his hemp away. Drug Enforcement Agents say he did not have the necessary registration. Since then, he needs to pull the wild seedlings to make sure they don’t pollinate the female plants.

The Pine Ridge Reservation falls within state boundaries, and a recent USDA clarification states that the 2018 farm bill doesn’t change the law for “Indian tribes, individuals, and entities located in States that do not permit hemp production are ineligible to participate in the growing or cultivation of hemp under the 2014 Farm Bill program.”

That’s because the USDA has yet to write the rules for industrial hemp production under the new farm bill.

“It’s a great opportunity,” Foster says. “It may be a great opportunity for economical development. I’m really glad that as a nation that we are taking these steps to grown hemp and participate in this.”