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Cunha et al. [137] conducted a trial of fifteen adult patients with focal-onset epilepsies. The patients were given between 200–300 mg of CBD or placebo. Patients treated with CBD, 7/8 reported improvement in seizures; while seven of the patients who received placebo remained unchanged [137].

Additional reports have supported and extended these findings demonstrating that THC, but not CBD, ameliorated both tremor and spasticity and reduced the overall clinical severity of the disease [194,195].

5.2.2. Clinical Evidence in Epilepsy

In addition, because medical and legal concerns, the use of medical cannabis and CBD oil is not recommended for management of CINV and is not included in the most recent guidelines for CINV from the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) [235,239].

Over the past years, cannabinoids grew interest in the dermatologic area, mostly due to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, as well as its hydrophobic behavior [244]. Some of the research focus on pathologies such as skin cancer and inflammatory skin diseases as contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis, amongst others [245]. However, according to Theroux and Cropley [246], Piffard was one of the pioneers in this field, leading to further investigation in the present and future, thus suggesting that this theme is not so recent after all. Despite that, the studies covered in this review are recent.

Cannabinoids are synthesized and stored predominantly in glandular trichomes, hair-like epidermal protrusions densely concentrated in the bracts and flowers of cannabis plants [12]. Various strategies have been pursued to extract and deliver the pharmacological agents from cannabis. The use of chemical solvents such as petroleum ether or ethanol are likely to leave unwanted residues, whereas extractants such as olive or coconut oil provide a more organic alternative [12].

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Zakaria, L., Izham, M., Jamil, M., and Anuar, I. S. M. (2016). Molecular characterisation of endophytic fungi from roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). Trop. Life Sci. Res. 27, 153–162.

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Bilal, L., Asaf, S., Hamayun, M., Gul, H., Iqbal, A., Ullah, I., et al. (2018). Plant growth promoting endophytic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus TS1 and Fusarium proliferatum BRL1 produce gibberellins and regulates plant endogenous hormones. Symbiosis 76, 117–127. doi: 10.1007/s13199-018-0545-4

Parmar, S., Li, Q., Wu, Y., Li, X., Yan, J., Sharma, V. K., et al. (2018). Endophytic fungal community of Dysphania ambrosioides from two heavy metal-contaminated sites: evaluated by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Microb. Biotechnol. 11, 1170–1183. doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.13308

Liu, U., Breman, E., Cossu, T. A., and Kenney, S. (2018). The conservation value of germplasm stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. Biodivers. Conserv. 27, 1347–1386. doi: 10.1007/s10531-018-1497-y

Ruas, M., Guignon, V., Sempere, G., Sardos, J., Hueber, Y., Duvergey, H., et al. (2017). MGIS: managing banana (Musa spp.) genetic resources information and high-throughput genotyping data. Database 2017:bax046. doi: 10.1093/database/bax046