Jimson weed (Datura stramonium, a member of the Belladonna alkyloid family) is a plant growing naturally in West Virginia and has been used as a home remedy since colonial times. Due to its easy availability and strong anticholinergic properties, teens are using Jimson weed as a drug. Plant parts ca … Learn more about JIMSON WEED uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain JIMSON WEED. The Weed Science Program’s goal at MSU is to provide science-based research and extension information on integrated weed management in field crops.
The dangers of jimson weed and its abuse by teenagers in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia
Jimson weed (Datura stramonium, a member of the Belladonna alkyloid family) is a plant growing naturally in West Virginia and has been used as a home remedy since colonial times. Due to its easy availability and strong anticholinergic properties, teens are using Jimson weed as a drug. Plant parts can be brewed as a tea or chewed, and seed pods, commonly known as “pods” or “thorn apples,” can be eaten. Side effects from ingesting jimson weed include tachycardia, dry mouth, dilated pupils, blurred vision, hallucinations, confusion, combative behavior, and difficulty urinating. Severe toxicity has been associated with coma and seizures, although death is rare. Treatment consists of activated charcoal and gastric lavage. Esmolol or other beta-blocker may be indicated to reduce severe sinus tachycardia. Seizures, severe hypertension, severe hallucinations, and life-threatening arrhythmias are indicators for the use of the anticholinesterase inhibitor, Physostigmine. This article reviews the cases of nine teenagers who were treated in hospitals in the Kanawha Valley after ingesting jimson weed. We hope this article will help alert primary care physicians about the abuse of jimson weed and inform health officials about the need to educate teens about the dangers of this plant.
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JIMSON WEED – Uses, Side Effects, and More
Jimson weed is a plant. The leaves and seeds are used to make medicine.
Despite serious safety concerns, jimson weed is used to treat asthma, cough, flu (influenza), swine flu, and nerve diseases.
Some people use it as a recreational drug to cause hallucinations and a heightened sense of well-being (euphoria). Parents should be warned about the online availability of jimson weed for purchase.
How does it work ?
Jimson weed contains chemicals such as atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine. These chemicals interfere with one of the chemical messengers (acetylcholine) in the brain and nerves.
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Insufficient Evidence for
- Nerve diseases.
- Causing hallucinations and elevated mood (euphoria).
- Other conditions.
Jimson weed is UNSAFE when taken by mouth or inhaled. It is poisonous and can cause many toxic effects including dry mouth and extreme thirst, vision problems, nausea and vomiting, fast heart rate, hallucinations, high temperature, seizures, confusion, loss of consciousness, breathing problems, and death. The deadly dose for adults is 15-100 grams of leaf or 15-25 grams of the seeds.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Jimson weed is UNSAFE when taken by mouth or inhaled. It is poisonous and can cause many toxic effects including dry mouth and extreme thirst, vision problems, nausea and vomiting, fast heart rate, hallucinations, high temperature, seizures, confusion, loss of consciousness, breathing problems, and death. The deadly dose for adults is 15-100 grams of leaf or 15-25 grams of the seeds. No one should take jimson weed, but certain people are especially at risk for toxic side effects. These side effects are especially dangerous if you have any of the following conditions:
Children: Jimson weed is UNSAFE when taken by mouth or inhaled by children. They are more sensitive than adults to the toxic effects of jimson weed. Even a small amount can kill them.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Jimson weed is UNSAFE for both mother and child when taken by mouth or inhaled.
Congestive heart failure (CHF): Jimson weed might cause rapid heartbeat and make CHF worse.
Constipation: Jimson weed might cause constipation.
Down syndrome: People with Down syndrome might be especially sensitive to the dangerous side effects of jimson weed.
Seizures: Jimson weed can cause seizures. Do not use jimson weed if you suffer from frequent seizures.
Esophageal reflux: In esophageal reflux, food and liquid in the stomach leak backwards into the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach (esophagus). Jimson weed might make this condition worse because it slows down the process that empties the stomach. It also lowers the pressure in the bottom of the esophagus, making it more likely that stomach contents will go back up.
Fever: Jimson weed might make fever worse.
Stomach ulcer: Jimson weed might delay stomach emptying and make ulcers worse.
Stomach and intestinal infections: Jimson weed might slow down the emptying of the stomach and intestines. As a result, “bad” bacteria and the toxins they produce could remain in the digestive tract longer than usual. This could make infections caused by these bacteria worse.
Hiatal hernia: Hiatal hernia is a condition in which part of the stomach is pushed up into the chest through a hole or tear in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the muscle that separates the chest space from the stomach space. Taking jimson weed might make hiatal hernia worse. It can slow down the process that empties the stomach.
Glaucoma: Glaucoma is an eye disease. It raises the pressure inside the eye and can lead to blindness, if it isn’t treated. Jimson weed is especially dangerous for people with glaucoma because it might raise the pressure inside the eye even more.
Obstructive digestive tract disorders, including atony, paralytic ileus, and stenosis: Jimson weed might make these conditions worse.
Rapid heartbeat: Jimson weed might make this condition worse.
Toxic megacolon: In this life-threatening condition, the large intestine (colon) suddenly becomes extra wide because of an infection or other intestinal disorder. Taking jimson weed might make this condition worse.
Ulcerative colitis: This is an inflammatory bowel disorder that affects the large intestine. Taking jimson weed might make this condition worse.
Difficulty passing urine (urinary retention): Taking jimson weed might make this condition worse.
Be cautious with this combination
Drying medications (Anticholinergic drugs) interacts with JIMSON WEED
Jimson weed contains chemicals that cause a drying effect. It also affects the brain and heart. Drying medications called anticholinergic drugs can also cause these effects. Taking jimson weed and drying medications together might cause side effects including dry skin, dizziness, low blood pressure, fast heartbeat, and other serious side effects.
Some of these drying medications include atropine, scopolamine, and some medications used for allergies (antihistamines), and for depression (antidepressants).
The appropriate dose of jimson weed depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for jimson weed. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
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Summer annual. Jimsonweed emerges in spring (May through mid-June), sets seed in late summer/fall and dies with the first killing frost.
Emerges from soil depths of 3-inches or less.
Production Range: Without competition one jimsonweed plant can produce 50 or more seed capsules and 30,000 or more seeds. Each seed capsule generally contains 600 to 700 seeds. Under severe competition one plant may only produce 3 to 4 small seed capsules. Seed capsules are produced until the first hard frost.
Dispersal Mechanisms: Seed capsules and seed are buoyant in water and can remaining floating for 10 days or more. Seeds are dispersed by dehiscence (splitting open of the seed capsule) up to a distance of 3 to 10 feet from the parent plant. Jimsonweed can also be dispersed by farm machinery, water, and impurities in commercial seed.
Longevity: Moderate to highly persistent. Ninety-one percent of seeds germinated after 39 years in a buried seed experiment.
Dormancy: Very little dormancy of mature seeds. Seeds are mature 30 day after fertilization, capsule opens 50 days after pollination and seeds will continue to ripen after fertilization even if the branch where the seed capsule is located is not attached to the plant.
One of the more competitive weeds. 4 to13 plants per yard2 can reduce yields of direct-seeded tomatoes by 26 to 71% and soybeans by 15 to 45%. Jimsonweed also interferes with harvesting operations.
Preferred Soil/Field Conditions:
Found on most soil types, but prefers rich soils, including disturbed soils rich in manure (i.e. barnyards).
Predation/grazing: Jimsonweed vegetation and seeds are poisonous due to production of tropane alkaloids. Livestock normally avoid eating jimsonweed unless no other vegetation is available.
Decay: Seeds decay more readily on the soil surface.
Tillage: Seedlings are readily killed by tillage. However, older plants may regenerate from lower nodes that are clipped or trampled.
Rotary Hoeing: Hoe before weeds exceed 1/4 inch in height. Once jimsonweed is established it is difficult to control.
Flaming: Effective on small jimsonweed.
Crop rotation: Not a weed of small grains or forages.
Planting date: Tillage in the spring triggers jimsonweed to germinate. Because of the extended time of emergence, planting early or planting late to reduce jimsonweed infestations may not be effective.
Application timing and effectiveness: Several herbicides are effective in corn, soybean, dry bean, and sugar beets. Control is greater when herbicides are applied to smaller jimsonweed plants. Please refer to E-434, “MSU Weed Control Guide for Field Crops,” for herbicide recommendations.
Jimsonweed can serve as an alternate host of many insect pests and diseases of Solanaceous crops, such as tomatoes and potatoes.