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THC, or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is the best-known psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. Learn about the effects, benefits, and risks of THC. Learn more about cannabis terpenes, the aromatic oils that give cannabis its distinctive smell. Explore their benefits and discover how they can deepen your appreciation of cannabis. Translations in context of "семян конопли" in Russian-English from Reverso Context: Масло из семян конопли очень питательно и может быть особенно полезным для кожи.

What Is THC?

Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD is a psychologist, professor, and Director of the Centre for Health Leadership and Research at Royal Roads University, Canada.

Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more.

Daniel B. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania.

What Is THC?

THC stands for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC). It is a cannabinoid molecule in marijuana (cannabis) that’s long been recognized as the main psychoactive ingredient—that is, the substance that causes people who use marijuana to feel high.

THC is just one of more than 500 different substances—and 100 different cannabinoid molecules—in marijuana. Although THC is the most recognized, another important cannabinoid molecule that has received major interest is cannabidiol (CBD).

History of THC

Cannabis has a long history of use that dates back thousands of years. The first recorded use of cannabis has been traced to China, where it was used for food, textiles, and medicine. Hemp was eventually introduced to Europe and later to the Americas, where it was used for both recreational and ritual purposes.

Cannabis was introduced to what is now the United States during the 1600s. Hemp was grown to produce textiles and sometimes even used as legal tender. It was used for a number of medical purposes as well, with its recreational use beginning to grow during the 1930s and 1940s.

Around this time, anti-drug campaigns were instituted against its use and many states passed laws prohibiting marijuana. The 1936 film “Reefer Madness” portrayed marijuana as a dangerous drug that led to psychosis, violence, and suicide.

In 1970, the Controlled Substances Act classified marijuana as a Schedule I drug, identifying it as having a high potential for abuse and making the drug illegal at the federal level. The “war on drugs” launched during the 1970s led to the large-scale incarceration of many people for marijuana possession and use.

Statistics suggest that the enforcement and penalization of marijuana laws disproportionately target people of color. While drug use has similar rates for people of all racial and ethnic backgrounds, Black and Latinx people are far more likely to be arrested and jailed for drug offenses.

While it is still not legal at the federal level, many states have approved the use of cannabis and THC for medical and, in some states, recreational purposes. Always check state laws before purchasing any products containing THC.

How THC Works

THC works by attaching to the body’s cannabinoid receptors, which are found throughout the brain and nervous system. THC can be detected in the body much longer than most other drug compounds, although the psychoactive effects only last a few hours.

THC is stored in body fat and organs for three to four weeks. Hair follicle testing may identify THC after even longer periods of time, around 90 days. Urine testing is often used but has been found to be an unreliable method of detection.

Forms of THC

THC is often smoked as marijuana (dried leaves of the Cannabis plant), but there are actually a number of different ways it can be used. THC can be consumed by:

  • Inhalation: This is the fastest method of delivery and produces the quickest psychoactive effects, often within minutes. THC can be inhaled via smoking, vaping, or dabbing. Recent reports suggest that vaping THC oil may pose safety risks that warrant further investigation.
  • Oral ingestion: THC can be taken by mouth in the form of capsules, edibles, tinctures, or oils. While this method of delivery takes longer to have an effect, the drug’s effects tend to last longer.
  • Topical application: THC can also be included in lotions, balms, salves, oils, and bath salts that are then applied to the skin. The effects of this method are usually localized, which means that they are unlikely to have psychoactive effects. However, such products may be helpful for reducing pain and inflammation.
  • Sublingual administration: THC can also be consumed as lozenges, sprays, or dissolvable strips that are placed under the tongue and dissolved.

THC in CBD Products

With the popularity of CBD, there has been a major market shift toward producing a seemingly endless variety of CBD products. Some of these products may contain traces of THC (around 0.3% to 0.9%), depending on how they’re formulated.

This small concentration is highly unlikely to result in a high feeling, and some experts argue that the effectiveness of CBD is potentiated by small amounts of THC. However, if you’re looking for a CBD product without any THC, be sure to select one that uses third-party testing to certify the purity of the product.

Uses of THC

THC is used recreationally, but it has a number of medicinal uses as well. Marijuana has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years, although scientific research on its use to alleviate and treat illness is still relatively recent.

Some of the ailments that THC may help include:

The FDA has also approved the synthetic THC medication dronabinol (sold under the brand names Marinol and Syndros) and a drug containing a synthetic substance similar to TCH known as nabilone (brand name Cesamet). Dronabinol is used to treat vomiting and nausea caused by chemotherapy and low appetite and weight loss caused by HIV/AIDS. Nabilone is also used to treat nausea and vomiting.

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Impact of THC

THC stimulates the release of a neurotransmitter called dopamine in the brain, which is what causes feelings of euphoria. Although, the effects on the body can vary from one person to the next.

People using THC may experience:

  • Altered perception of time
  • Feelings of relaxation
  • Heightened sensory perception
  • Increased appetite

While it can cause pleasant effects, TCH can also lead to adverse reactions as well. Some of the most common include coughing fits, anxiety, and paranoia, along with chest or lung discomfort, and “body humming.” Some people also experience fainting, hallucinations, or cold sweats due to THC use.

Potential Pitfalls of THC

There is considerable research-based evidence that THC is associated with an increased risk of psychosis, both among adolescents and adults. It is also linked to increased anxiety, learning impairment, and decreased memory formation.

CBD has been found to help counter these effects, reducing anxiety, improving learning ability, and working as an antipsychotic—although much of the available research is on animals. When taken together, as is the case with marijuana use, CBD seems to reduce the negative effects of THC.

A 2013 meta-analysis, which is a type of study that looks at the results of many previous studies, also found some evidence that THC may be neurotoxic as there are differences in the brain structure of people who regularly use marijuana (and who do not have psychosis).

One interesting point underscoring brain changes: While research has shown a reduction in gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex of people with a history of heavy marijuana use, there is an apparent compensatory response. The density of fibrous connections among remaining neurons increases, which may cancel out some or all of the neurotoxicity.

Research into the effects of THC (or delta-9-THC) is complicated by many factors, but there is sufficient evidence that THC can be harmful, particularly to younger people whose brains are still developing. They should, therefore, avoid frequent marijuana use.

Is Delta-9 THC Addictive?

Cannabis is the most commonly used federally illegal substance in the United States. Despite the common belief that the drug is not addictive, THC tolerance and dependence (precursors to addiction) have been widely documented.

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), about 30% of people who use marijuana will become addicted—and using the drug prior to age 18, when the brain is still developing, increases the likelihood of cannabis use disorder four- to seven-fold.

Similar to other types of addiction, cannabis use disorder involves a preoccupation with the drug, bingeing, and symptoms of withdrawal when it cannot be used. Additional criteria for diagnosing an addiction include experiencing constant cravings and having drug-related relationship and social issues.

Amount of THC in Marijuana

Americans are definitely not dealing with the same pot as in the past. This is because today’s marijuana is much more potent, with THC concentration levels increasing from 9.75% in 2009 to 13.88% in 2019.

For comparison purposes, the THC content of marijuana back in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s was under 2%, increasing to around 4% in the 1990s. Additionally, some strains today have an even higher content, such as a strain called “Girl Scout Cookie” that contains as much as 28% THC.

The amount of THC contained in marijuana varies by the way that the cannabis is prepared for use, such as leaf/bud, hashish, or hashish oil. THC levels may exceed 50% in products made from marijuana extracts.

How to Get Help

If you or a loved one wants to stop using THC but are finding this difficult, several options exist. Treatments for cannabis use disorder that show promise for providing positive results include:

    , which helps people identify and correct behaviors associated with drug use
  • Contingency management, a treatment approach that involves receiving rewards when a desired behavior occurs (or does not occur) , which promotes an internal desire for change and motivation to engage in treatment

While some suggest that drugs such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anxiolytics (anti-anxiety medications) may help treat cannabis use disorder, evidence is lacking due to small study sizes and varying methods of assessing treatment outcomes.

If you or a loved one are struggling with substance use or addiction, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area.

For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database.

Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. What is marijuana?.

Hadland SE, Levy S. Objective testing: Urine and other drug tests. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2016;25(3):549-565. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2016.02.005

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Cannabis (marijuana) and cannabinoids: What you need to know.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. What are marijuana’s effects?.

LaFrance E, Stueber A, Glodosky N, Mauzay D, Cuttler C. Overbaked: Assessing and predicting acute adverse reactions to cannabis. J Cannabis Res. 2020;2:3. doi:10.1186/s42238-019-0013-x

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Is marijuana addictive?.

ElSohly M, Chandra S, Radwan M, Gon Majumdar C, Church J. A comprehensive review of cannabis potency in the United States in the last decade. Biolog Pychiatry: Cognit Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2021;6(6):603-6. doi:10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.12.016

Kondo K, Morasco B, Nugent S, et al. Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of cannabis use disorder. Ann Intern Med. 2020;172:398-412. doi:10.7326/M19-1105

What are cannabis terpenes and what do they do?

The unique musky, skunky, and pungent aroma of cannabis is unmistakable: Most people can smell it before they even see it. Terpenes, the aromatic compounds that determine the scent of many flowers and herbs, bestow cannabis with its distinctive odor and contribute to its flavor.

Cannabis contains more than 150 types of terpenes. Although most terpenes are present in only trace amounts, the more prominent ones team together to give diverse cannabis strains their signature scent profiles. The combination of terpenes in Sour Diesel tell you of its pungent, gassy character, while Cherry Pie evokes the pleasant scent of sweet and sour cherry pie fresh out of the oven.

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Beyond providing cannabis with its unique bouquet of scents, terpenes also hold diverse functions in the plant and can produce a range of therapeutic and mood-altering effects in cannabis consumers.

Where do terpenes come from?

Terpenes are naturally-occurring compounds found in the trichomes of female cannabis plants. Trichomes are sticky, translucent glands that cover the surface of buds, and in much smaller amounts, on leaves and stems. Critically, trichomes contain resin glands that produce terpenes.

Terpenes play an integral role in a cannabis plant’s growth and survival. Besides producing distinctive aromas, these organic compounds also enrich color and pigmentation in leaves and buds, and contribute to the flavor of cannabis. In short, terpenes help to enhance the plant’s attractiveness to some creatures, while deterring others that can do harm.

Certain terpenes like geraniol, for example, repel insects or herbivores that might be tempted to snack on cannabis. Other terpenes, like terpinolene and linalool, attract insects and other small creatures that can help spread pollen. These aromatic compounds support the plant’s immune system by conveying information about the surrounding environment, protecting plants from stressors and pathogens and helping to trigger immune responses.

A sweep of variables can affect the amount of terpenes a cannabis plant produces. Factors such as whether the plant is grown outdoors or indoors, exposure to light, temperature, certain growing mediums, nutrient levels, and when harvesting is carried out can all influence terpene levels.

Many terpenes are volatile compounds, meaning they are easily lost during standard cannabis extraction processes. However, growing awareness of the therapeutic value of terpenes is leading to more sensitive extraction methods, such as live resin.

Live resin is made from fresh frozen cannabis plants and maintains freezing temperatures throughout the extraction process to protect terpenes and other volatile compounds in the plant, leading to a more aromatically complex and flavorful cannabis experience.

How do terpenes affect the body?

Awareness of the aromatic properties of terpenes is not new. Humans have long harnessed the vibrant scents associated with terpenes to formulate essential oils for practices such as aromatherapy.

For example, anyone who’s dabbed lavender oil—which contains linalool—behind their ears knows that it can potentially help you relax you. Similarly, terpenes in certain cannabis strains can add to its effects.

However, the effects of terpenes appear to extend beyond feel-good benefits and stress relief. Terpenes have also been identified as a new frontier in cannabis medicine. Until recently, the spotlight has been focused almost exclusively on the therapeutic qualities of cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD, but as our understanding of terpenes grows more sophisticated, it’s becoming apparent that these aromatic compounds are medicinal powerhouses too.

All terpenes boast unique combinations of therapeutic properties. Unsurprisingly, some of the effects terpenes have on humans are evocative of their function in cannabis and other plants—like helping to fight off unwelcome microbes and pathogens.

The medicinal benefits of terpenes

Preclinical studies on animals and in vitro studies—in test tubes—have identified a range of therapeutic benefits associated with terpenes. It should be noted, however, that terpene research is in its infancy and has not been widely performed on humans. More research needs to be done to solidify our understanding of these compounds.

Antiviral

Researchers are always on the hunt for new antiviral compounds. Many terpenes could show strong abilities to help kill viruses, including alpha- and beta-pinene, caryophyllene, camphor, and carvone.

Anticancer

Rising rates in many forms of cancer are driving the quest to find compounds that can help suppress it. Some terpenes, including those found in cannabis, can exhibit anticancer activity, helping to inhibit the activity or growth of cancer cells.

Limonene could represent a particularly notable anticancer and antitumor agent, along with other terpenes such as pinene, camphor, terpinene, and beta-myrcene. One potential unique benefit of terpenes is that they may be unlikely to affect healthy cells or cause side effects—something important for cancer treatments.

Antidepressant

Twenty-five percent of antidepressant drugs are formulated using herbal extracts that contain terpenes. Linalool and beta-pinene are common among many plant extracts used in antidepressant medication.

Antimicrobial

A vast array of terpenes may display antimicrobial activity, or the ability to halt a harmful microorganism in its tracks. Terpenes that may help in killing or stopping the progression of microorganisms include alpha-bisabolol, geraniol, menthol, eucalyptol, and terpinolene.

Pain relief

Researchers have found that some cannabis terpenes may mimic cannabinoids by creating a pain-relieving effect. In one 2021 study that combined terpenes with cannabinoids, pain-relieving effects were amplified without an increase in negative side effects. This interaction could indicate the entourage effect (more below).

Terpenes that may promote pain-relieving activity include humulene, geraniol, linalool, and β-pinene. Fascinatingly, the study above also found that these terpenes activate the body’s CB1 receptors, which form part of the endocannabinoid system and influence pain perception.

How can terpenes contribute to the effects of cannabis?

Emerging evidence suggests that all plant compounds in cannabis work together synergistically—this is known as the entourage effect and can be thought of as: The whole of all compounds present in cannabis are more together than the sum of its parts. In other words, a special whole-plant synergy occurs when cannabinoids and terpenes are consumed together, as opposed to by themselves.

For example, terpenes appear to play a part in influencing the effects of THC and CBD in the body. In a 2018 review of people with epilepsy, those who took full-spectrum CBD extract—including cannabinoids and terpenes—experienced improved symptoms and fewer side effects than those who took CBD isolate, only containing cannabinoids. Full-spectrum cannabis extract is whole-plant medicine, containing cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds that are present in the plant.

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The researchers also found that full-spectrum CBD extract was four times more potent than the CBD isolate, meaning patients could take a significantly lower dose, and attributed this to the therapeutic synergy of cannabinoids and other compounds, such as terpenes.

More recent research has found that terpenes boost cannabinoid activity, but high concentrations of terpenes were needed to see this enhancement.

It’s vital to acknowledge that much is still unknown about terpenes and their interactions with other terpenes, cannabinoids, and flavonoids present in cannabis. In addition, the majority of the research we do have is based on animal or test-tube models.

Nonetheless, growing clinical interest in these aromatic compounds is yielding some fascinating findings. It’s likely that the coming years will see a more sophisticated understanding of terpenes develop, and how they behave both individually and synergistically.

The top three terpenes found in cannabis

As mentioned earlier, there’s a staggering range of terpenes present in cannabis—more than 150 different types, to be exact. While many of these occur in concentrations too low to detect, some have a more robust presence.

Here’s the lowdown on three terpenes that are the most predominant in cannabis.

Myrcene

Most cannabis cultivars are dominant in either myrcene or caryophyllene. Myrcene, a terpene that’s also predominant in hops and lemongrass, has been described as delivering scent notes that are herbaceous, spicy, earthy, and musky. Myrcene gives cannabis a mildly sweet flavor profile—it’s also found in mangoes.

In addition to contributing to the signature scent of cannabis, myrcene can also deliver anti-inflammatory effects. A 2015 study in cultured cells indicates that myrcene may effectively reduce inflammation associated with osteoarthritis.

The terpene also appeared to help prevent the breakdown of cartilage cells, slow down the progression of osteoarthritis, and decrease the production of certain inflammatory cells produced by the body. Myrcene could potentially be harnessed to help alleviate anti-inflammatory diseases and their symptoms in the future.

Caryophyllene

Caryophyllene, also known as beta-caryophyllene or β-caryophyllene, lends a spicy, peppery bite to some cannabis strains. Caryophyllene is also found in other plants such as cloves, rosemary, oregano, and black pepper. If you catch any of these scents when you smell a certain cannabis cultivar, it’s likely because caryophyllene is present.

Caryophyllene is the only known terpene found in cannabis that can bind to the CB2 receptor in the endocannabinoid system, which is found in the body’s immune system. Thanks to this unique action, caryophyllene is sometimes also classed as an atypical cannabinoid.

Research into the therapeutic actions of caryophyllene shows that it has potential in easing symptoms in diverse conditions such as colitis, diabetes, cerebral ischemia, anxiety and depression, liver fibrosis, and Alzheimer-like diseases.

Future research suggests that caryophyllene’s activity at the CB2 receptor could be harnessed to help treat conditions that are accompanied by inflammatory symptoms.

Limonene

Clean, fresh, uplifting citrus-y scents—limonene’s name is a giveaway for the aromas associated with this terpene. Limonene is found in the rinds of citrus fruits and ginger, and the terpene is also predominant in many cannabis cultivars that have a fruity, fresh bouquet, like Papaya Punch or Black Cherry Soda.

Limonene appears to alter the way certain immune cells in the body behave, which may protect the body from a range of disorders. In one study, limonene helped to increase the production of antibody-producing cells in the spleen and bone marrow, which are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

Researchers have also recently floated the idea that the unique therapeutic profile of limonene could be useful in treatments for Covid-19.

Translation of “семян конопли” in English

Когда вы покупаете свою первую партию семян конопли, есть несколько вещей, за которыми нужно следить.

When you are buying your first batch of cannabis seeds, there are a couple of things to keep an eye out for.

Royal Queen Seeds является одной из самых быстро развивающихся компаний по продаже семян конопли в Европе.

Протеины муки из семян конопли не содержат глиадин и глютенин (следовательно, глютен), поэтому пища прекрасно переносится целиакией.

The proteins of hemp seed flour do not include gliadin and glutenin (therefore gluten), so the food is perfectly tolerated by celiacs.

Импорт, хранение и поставка семян конопли не подлежит регулированию в соответствии с Договором 1961 г. о наркотиках.

In Germany, the cultivation of hemp seeds (even for medicinal reasons) is subject to official approval.

Протеиновый порошок, произведенный из семян конопли, фактически является производным от другого «дополнения»: каннабиса.

Made from hemp seeds, hemp protein is actually a derivative of another “supplement” altogether: cannabis.

Его производством активно занимаются компании Hallstar, Extracts Unlimited, масло с каннабидиолом и более традиционное масло семян конопли поставляет Arista Industries.

Its production is actively involved in the company Hallstar, Extracts Unlimited, oil cannabidiol and more traditional hemp seed oil Arista Industries supplies.

Это означает, что в некоторых случаях партия регулярных семян конопли может быть преимущественно мужской.

Особенно целебные свойства семян конопли ценятся людьми, ведущими здоровый образ жизни, теми, кто привык питаться осознанно.

Especially the healing properties of cannabis seeds are valued by people who run a healthy lifestyle, those who are accustomed to eating consciously.

Значение питательных веществ семян конопли для здоровья человека не станут полностью понятны без некоторого понимания биохимии жизни.

The importance of hemp seed nutrients to human health cannot be fully appreciated without some understanding of biochemistry in life.

Examples are used only to help you translate the word or expression searched in various contexts. They are not selected or validated by us and can contain inappropriate terms or ideas. Please report examples to be edited or not to be displayed. Rude or colloquial translations are usually marked in red or orange.

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